Special case

On the previous page it was noted that a greater immune response would be delt if TLR were activated. However the presence and quality of TLRs have been found to be dependent upon age.

Toll-like receptors and immunogenicity in infants

Recent studies have shown that the infants immune system is compromised, and that one of the problems is that nearly all TLRs are either not present or not of a quality standard. This is true for all TLRs except TLR 8. Because of this there is promising research underway to the use of vaccines which contain TLR 8 agonist in the infants vaccines. This may (experiments are currently underway) increase the immune response of vaccines in infants (Levy et al. 2008).


Toll-like receptors and the elderly

Research has also shown that the effectiveness of TLRs to gain a immune response decreases past the age of 65. This suggest that there may be other factors (not currently known) at play in the immune system at this age and that TLRs although present do not have such and important role in the older generations (Rottinghaus, Vesosky & Turner 2010).

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Contributed by Christopher Sutton